Europa 2 as collection of national projects
ELDO carrier Rocket Europe 1 (F5) before its launch in Woomera, Australia
For the countries that did eventually build the first rockets under the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO), there were clear advantages to co-operation.
Among other things, this meant sharing the costs for national programs while maintaining and developing knowledge and expertise. Although the financing was international, each physical part of the project had a different country of origin. The British reworked their cancelled military rocket Blue Streak into the first stage of the joint European launcher. Similarly, the second stage was developed from the French missile Coralie, which enabled France to also work on the delivery system basis for its own nuclear arsenal, independent of the US or the Soviet Union.
Germany, which had been a leader in rocket technology, not least with the deadly V2 rocket developed during the Nazi era, would build the third stage, "Astris," thus re-entering the rocket industry under the auspices of peaceful collaboration. Italy built a test satellite, while Belgium and the Netherlands participated with responsibility for ground control and telemetry.
How to cite this page
Alexander Badenoch, 'Europa 2 as collection of national projects', Inventing Europe, http://www.inventingeurope.eu/knowledge/europa-2-as-collection-of-national-projects
- Trischler, Helmuth and Kohlrausch,Martin. The Politics of Expertise in Europe: Creating, Organizing, Sharing Knowledge. Basingstoke: Palgrave, forthcoming.